I want to find out which file is going to hold any trace information generated by my database session. Unfortunately, I keep forgetting the query that I need to run to find out.
Fortunately I’m using SQLcl, which includes the ALIAS command.
What follows is a quick run-through of this command including :
listing the aliases that are already set up in SQLcl
displaying the code that an alias will execute
creating your own alias interactively
deleting an alias
using files to manage custom aliases
Whilst I’m at it, I’ll create the alias for the code to find that pesky trace file too. Continue reading →
It’s quite a good time for English football at the moment. Not only have English clubs monopolised the finals of the two main European Club competitions this year, but Manchester City have made history by winning all three domestic competitions in the same season.
Note that this isn’t a British footballing first. Glasgow Rangers managed it way back in 1949. And whilst the European Cup ( Champions League if you must) has eluded City this season, Celtic managed that particular clean sweep in 1967.
In English football however, this particular treble is unprecedented. In fact, there are remarkably few managers who have been able to win every one of the major domestic honours in their entire career.
All of which will come in handy when looking for examples to illustrate the topic at hand, namely Oracle Unified Auditing.
With the aid of 18c Express Edition, we’ll be looking at :
The Oracle supplied Unified Auditing Policies that are enabled by default
Where to find the Audit Trail
How to create our own Unified Auditing Policy to monitor DML operations on specific objects
In 1990, Liverpool became English League Champions for the 10th time in 15 seasons. Despite this impressive track record, my Dad came over all Yoda-esque and confidently predicted that they would not win The Title again in his lifetime. Since then, Liverpool have won everything else, including the Champions League – OK Dad , the European Cup – but the prediction has held. In fact, it’s gone on so long that it probably qualifies as a prophecy by now. Before the start of each season, I can assess Liverpool’s prospects, by simply enquiring after his health. “Musn’t grumble, ‘cos if you do no-one bloody listens !” can be taken as a synonym for “I’ll be around for a while yet, so don’t waste your money on backing Liverpool to win it this season”. Which brings us to the subject of this post – namely the apparently random nature of the ORA-01775 error, where synonyms are concerned…
I was going to begin with some extended Brexit metaphor to illustrate the chaos and confusion that can ensue when you first encounter Oracle’s CREATE SCHEMA command.
Fortunately, the Dutch Government saved me the trouble :
Much as I’d like to believe that the Cookie Monster has finally overcome his Sesame Street type casting, I can’t help noticing that the Brexit Monster never seems to in the same room as this guy…
In Oracle, the term “schema” is used interchangeably with the term “user”. Creating a user in Oracle automatically creates a schema of the same name belonging to that user.
The process is so seamless that it’s almost impossible to tell where one begins and the other ends.
You may therefore be somewhat confused the first time you encounter Oracle’s CREATE SCHEMA command…
“Proxy Users !” exclaimed Debbie.
“I say, that’s rather harsh don’t you think ?” came the rather startled reply from her boss.
Debbie sighed. They were in the midst of a discussion on the subject of how best to deploy database changes to multiple schemas.
“I meant”, she replied with iron patience, “that we could set up a proxy user to connect as each application owner in turn. That way, we wouldn’t have to grant those CREATE ANY privileges that get auditors so worried”.
“Oh, I see”, said Mike, who didn’t.
Not for the first time, Debbie wondered whether she had been lumbered with a less competent man as her boss simply in order to imbue this post with a semblance of social realism.
“I think”, she said, “that it’s time to move on to the techie bit.”
Debbie is right, as usual…
In order to make a change in Oracle ( or any database for that matter), you need at some point to connect to the database and run some SQL.
This is relatively straightforward if you are using the schema that is – or will be – the owner of the objects you are creating or changing.
However, this may not be possible if the account is identified externally or – in more recent releases – it’s a schema only account.
So, what is the best way to setup and use an account to make such changes in other schemas ?
Debbie felt a shiver run down her spine. To be fair, that wasn’t much of a surprise since Lapland at this time of the year does tend to be a little chilly.
However, it wasn’t the weather that was the cause of her discomfort. Someone high up in the IT Department of her employer, The National Elf ( aka Santa’s Grotto) had decided that Continuous Integration was the way to go and had decreed that it should be used forthwith across all projects and technologies in the Company.
This included the application that Debbie was responsible for.
Written around 15 years ago, this Stock Control Application had already survived one major database upgrade but was now resolutely “stuck” on Oracle 11g.
The thing about so many modern software development techniques is that they were based on the premise that code was file based. Of course, this was also true ( or at least, true enough) for some database objects, but tables were a little different.
You couldn’t simply “replace” a table like you could any other program as doing so would destroy any data in that table. For this reason, any changes required to tables for a mature application such as this would be applied by means of DDL ALTER statements.
Of course, there are tools around for this sort of thing. Liquibase, FlexDeploy – these were just two of the tools that Debbie had no chance of getting approval to use in the face of a bureaucracy that made the Vogon Civil Service look like it was following Extreme Programming.
If she was going to get her changes through by her Christmas Eve deadline, she would have to get creative…
Cute and fluffy he may be, but he’s got to earn his keep. He can start making himself useful by helping me with this post.
It begins one Friday afternoon when an urgent request lands on my desk with a large splat.
The requirement is that some csv files be uploaded into the Oracle 11g Datbasae serving the UAT environment to facilitate some testing.
There are around 20 files, each with a slightly different set of attributes.
The files are currently sitting on the on the Red Hat Linux Server hosting the database.
I have sufficient OS permissions on the server to move them to a directory that has a corresponding database object in the UAT instance.
Nevertheless, the thought of having to knock out 20-odd external tables to read these files might leave me feeling a bit like this…
Fortunately, a certain Lee E. McMahon had the foresight to predict the potential risk to my weekend and wrote the Stream Editor (sed) program…